After a interviews r with experts from Serbia and Montenegro , we are moving to the experts from another SeeNet members country – *Kosovo. Firstly, we are talking about energy with Mr Dardan Abazi. With a background in political science, Dardan Abazi has long experience in public policy with special emphasis on monitoring legislation in the field of energy, parliamentary research and advocacy. Dardan is certified by the Life Academy for Energy Efficiency and Planning and has participated in dozens of training on democratic governance, European integration and public policy in general.
1. The topic of decarbonization and shutdown of coal power plants is very common in the EU and the countries of the region. Is there a discussion in Kosovo about the date of decarbonisation of the economy and how Kosovo plan the energy transition? (low carbon development strategy, coal phase out, and other acts)
In Kosovo, there is discussion about the topic of decarbonisation, but until now, nothing concrete has been undertaken. A lot of NGOs, and some deputies try to advance the discussions about decarbonisation. Kosovo doesn’t have a plan about the energy transition. The current Energy Strategy is not adequate, because it does not provide clear paths for its objectives, nor does it provide for decarbonisation. So now a new strategy is being drafted, which is supposed to contain the objective of decarbonisation, which is thought to happen by 2050. We have nothing official so far, but these are currently just discussions. Currently, Kosovo is considering the option of using natural gas, as an option for energy transition, but such an option could present other problems as it is known that natural gas is a fossil source, and then it would take two transitions to complete decarbonisation.
2. In the year behind us (2020), the world record was set with 260 GW of RES installed. What is the total share of RES in Kosovo and what are the projections for 2030? What is the most dominant source of RES used in Kosovo and where do you see the greatest potential for further development?
The total operating capacity of electricity generation in Kosovo is 1110 MW, of which 960 MW or 86.5% MW are from power plants and the rest are from sources of renewable energy (hydropower plants, wind farms and photovoltaic panels). The projection for 2030 in the energy sector is that demand will increase by 20%, the “TC Kosova A” power plant will be shut down, investments will be made in interconnection lines, existing and new ones, investments in energy efficiency, and investments in renewable resources by increasing their generating capacities, where with these investments it is foreseen to cover all the demand by the consumers. The most dominant sources of RES in Kosovo are photovoltaic panels, as Kosovo has a good geographical position, and has near 273 days with sun during the year. Also Kosovo has great perspective in the wind power plants, because the relief of Kosovo, gives a good opportunity to produce a large energy capacity using wind as a source.
3. Based on information provided by the IEA (International Energy Agency), solar energy is currently the cheapest source of energy in history. What is the situation with the use of solar in Kosovo with special reference to the solar rooftop.
During 2020, ERO has licensed 33 new prosumers, where all of them applied for using photovoltaic panels. These licensed consumers have a total generating capacity of 978.73 kW. These data are taken from ERO’s annual report for 2020, and it is also said that there are 10 other applicants who are waiting to be licensed to use this technology.
4. Does the legislation Kosovo recognize energy cooperatives (local energy communities) and Prosumers? Give us examples of good practice.
Article 30 of the Law No. 05/L-085 for Electrical Energy, has still not found application in practice. This article is about closed distribution systems and in practice it is similar with local energy communities. Although by law these systems are permissible, ERO has not yet received applications for licensing. As about prosumers, the number of licensing applications is increasing every day. This category of generators are legally supported and encouraged to make the most of renewable energy technology. It is a good sign that their number is growing, but it is not a satisfactory number. The total generation capacity, that is going to be achieved by prosumers that were licensed in 2020, is 978.73 kW. In 2020, 33 applicants were licensed and 10 others are in process to be licensed with a total generation capacity of 420 kW. It is a good sign, as year by year, the number of prosumers is being increased.
5. According to Eurostat data, the average household in the EU consumes about 300 kWh per month. How much does the average household spend in Kosovo? How do you rate energy efficiency in Kosovo? Is there a regulation (law and bylaws)?
The total billing in Kosovo for electricity in the household sector is 2,777,699 MWh, while consumers in the household are 537,577. Through these figures we conclude that every household customer in Kosovo consumes an average of 430 kWh of electricity per month. This is a very high figure compared to European countries as total costs are 50% higher than those of EU consumers. This is also due to energy efficiency.
Energy efficiency is at unsatisfactory levels in Kosovo. Although the law on energy efficiency exists, it is not strictly enforced. There are no audit reports on buildings in Kosovo, which could detect the problems of buildings in terms of energy.
*All references to Kosovo, whether the territory, institutions or population, in this text shall be understood in full compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and without prejudice to the status of Kosovo.
 ZRRE, Annual Report 2020
 LIGJI NR. 05/L – 085 PËR ENERGJINË ELEKTRIKE, https://gzk.rks-gov.net/ActDetail.aspx?ActID=12744
 ZRRE, Annual Report 2020
 ZRRE, Annual Report 2020
 LIGJI NR. 06/L-079 PËR EFIÇIENCË TË ENERGJISË, https://gzk.rks-gov.net/ActDetail.aspx?ActID=18216